West Europe


• Andorra

• Austria

• Azores

• Belgium

• Canary Islands (Spain)

• Denmark

• Faroe Islands (Denmark)

• Finland

• France

• Germany

• Gibraltar (U.K.)

• Greece

• Greenland (Denmark)

• Iceland

• Ireland

• Italy

• Liechtenstein

• Luxembourg

• Madeira Islands (Portugal)

• Malta

• Monaco

• Netherlands, The

• Norway

• Portugal

• San Marino

• Saint Helena (U.K.)

• Spain

• Sweden

• Switzerland

• United Kingdom

Health Risks

• Avian influenza

• Hepatitis A (low risk)

• Leishmaniasis

• Measles

• Tickborne encephalitis

• Trichinosis

• Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (in United Kingdom)

Preventing Health Problems

Recommended Vaccines

• Routine Vaccinations – including polio, measles-mumps-and-rubella (MMR), tetanus-diphtheria-and-pertussis (Tdap), and yearly influenza vaccines.

• Hepatitis A (only recommended in Greenland, Saint Helena)

• Hepatitis B

• Typhoid (only recommended in Saint Helena)

Avoiding Bug Bites

• Mosquitoes, ticks, and other bugs are effective at spreading diseases. You should use standard insect precautions:

o Use insect repellent with 30-50% DEET

o Wear long-sleeved shirts and pants when outdoors

Food and Water

In Saint Helena

• Being in a new culture also means new concerns about both food and water. In order to reduce food and water borne illnesses there are some simple things that can be done.

o Drink bottled water, bottled or canned carbonated drinks, or water you have filtered or treated. DO NOT drink tap water, fountain drinks, or use ice cubes.

o Washing your hands with soap and water or using an alcohol-based hand sanitizer before eating is a simple yet very effective way to reduce ingesting harmful bacteria and viruses.

o As for food, DO NOT eat food that may have contacted contaminated water or soil such as fresh vegetables or fruit that you don’t peel before eating.

o Meat should always be fully cooked before eating to avoid food borne illness as well as worms.

o DO NOT eat unpasteurized dairy products.

o Avoid eating food from street vendors as food borne illness is prevalent at them due to undercooked food and ingredients that are not properly washed.

In all other areas of the region

• Food and water are generally safe, but you should use standard food and water precautions:

o Wash your hands with soap and water or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer before eating

o DO NOT eat unpasteurized dairy products

Avoiding Injuries

• Some of the more common injuries that occur in these areas are bike injuries. Always wear a helmet while riding your bike.

• While less common, injuries do occur while driving. The best defense against injury while driving is wearing a seat belt at all times while in a car.

Avoiding Animals

• Animals such as dogs and cats can spread diseases and insects such as rabies and fleas. Avoid touching animals as much as possible.

Sun Exposure

• Too much sun exposure can increase your risk for getting skin cancer. Always wear sunscreen when outdoors.

Recommended Items to Bring

General Health and Medications

The following is a list of medications that you might consider taking to this area of the world.

• Any medications you take regularly at home

• Pain reliever such as ibuprofen, acetaminophen (Tylenol), or aspirin

• 1% hydrocortisone cream

• Anti-itch cream

• Antifungal cream

• Saline eye drops

• Anti motion sickness medication (if necessary)

• Thermometer

Avoiding Bug Bites

The following is a list of general items that you should take with you to prevent bug bites.

• Insect repellent with 30-50% DEET

• Long-sleeved shirts and pants

Food and Water

The following list includes items that help to simply reduce the spread of disease but also items that help to reduce water and food borne illness. There are also a couple medications that help in the event that you have diarrhea.

In Saint Helena

• Hand soap

• Alcohol-based hand sanitizer

• Water bottle

• Water purification

o Water filter

o Iodine tablets

o Ultraviolet water purifier

• Anti-diarrhea medication (loperamide)

• Bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol)

• Prescription antibiotic to treat travelers’ diarrhea

In all other areas of the region

• Hand soap

• Alcohol-based hand sanitizer

• Water bottle

Avoiding Injuries

This list includes items you should bring if you ride a bike as well as some of the items you should find in a first aid kit.

• Bicycle helmet

• Bicycle multi-tool

• Basic first aid kit

o Multiple sizes of adhesive bandages

o Antibiotic ointment

o Butterfly bandages

o Gauze pads

o Alcohol wipes

o Adhesive tape

o Blistoban

o Moleskin or Molefoam

o Burn treatment gel

o Tweezers

• Compression bandage

Sun Exposure

• Sunscreen and sunburn lotion such as aloe vera are both vital to prevent sun exposure and to treat sunburns.